USA booklet

Table of contens:

1. The history of the USA

2. The political system and American politics

3. The geography of the USA and its economy

4. Topic: US minorities

- American Indians

5. Topic: sports

- Baseball

6. Topic: music

- Blues

7.Topic: famous Americans

- Bill Clinton

- Michael Jordan Chronology

8. Sources

9. Glossary

1.The history of the USA:


Oct. 12, 1492 - Christopher Columbus is the 1st European to set foot on the New World.

Apr. 2, 1513 - Juan Ponce DeLeon establishes the 1st colony in what is now the United States (St. Augustine, Florida).

Mar. 5, 1770 - British troops fire on a rock throwing crowd (known as "The Boston Massacre").

Jun. 9, 1772 - The 1st naval Battle of the American Revolution off the coast of Rhode Island.

Apr. 27, 1773 - Britain passes the Tea Act.

Dec. 16, 1773 - The Boston Tea Party takes place as residents throw tea into Boston Harbor.

Apr. 19, 1775 - The Revolutionary War officially begins with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

Nov. 28, 1775 - The Continental Navy is established by the Continental Congress.

Jul. 4, 1776 - The United States declares its Independence from Britain (by approving the Declaration of Independence).

Jan. 5, 1778 - Naval mines are used for the 1st time by the Continental Navy.

May 4, 1778 - The Continental Congress ratifies the Treaty of Alliance with France.

Jul. 9, 1778 - The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.

Aug. 7, 1782 - Gen. George Washington creates the Order of the Purple Heart (for soldiers wounded in battle).

Sep. 3, 1783 - The Treaty of Paris 1783 is signed by Britain and the United States, officially ending the Revolutionary War as the United States is recognized as a sovereign nation. The New Nation

Sep. 3, 1783 - The United States gains what is currently Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee, Wisconsin, and parts of Alabama, Georgia, Minnesota, Mississippi, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia as a result of the Treaty of Paris


Aug. 8, 1786 - The Continental Congress adopts the "Dollar" and decimal coinage.

May 14, 1787 - Delegates begin meeting in Philadelphia to draw up a change the Articles of Confederation.

Sep. 17, 1787 - The Constitutional Convention approves the Constitution and sends it to the states to have it ratified.

Oct. 27, 1787 - The 1st of the Federalist Papers is published in a New York newspaper, calling for a Bill of Rights (written by

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay).

Jun. 21, 1788 - The United States Constitution goes into effect now that the necessary 9 states have ratified it.

Apr. 1, 1789 - The United States House of Representatives holds its 1st full meeting in New York City.

Apr. 30, 1789 - George Washington is sworn in as the 1st President of the United States.

Sep. 29, 1789 - The United States Army is established.

Apr. 3, 1790 - The United States Coast Gaurd is established.

Dec. 15, 1791 - The United States Congress adopts the Bill of Rights (containing the 1st 10 Amendments).

May 8, 1792 - The United States Military Draft is established.

Mar. 27, 1794 - The United States Navy is established.

May 8, 1794 - The United States Post Office is established.

Feb. 7, 1795 - The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Dec. 12, 1800 - Washington, D.C. becomes the official capital of the United States.

Apr. 30, 1803 - The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory for $15 million, containing what is now Arkansas, part of Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, part of Minnesota, Missouri, part of Montana, part of North Dakota, part of Oklahoma, South Dakota, and part of Wyoming.

Jun. 15, 1804 - The 12th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Mar. 4, 1805 - Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Mar. 4, 1805 - George Clinton is sworn in as 4th Vice President of the United States.

Nov. 18, 1805 - Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean.

Sep. 23, 1806 - Lewis and Clark return from exploring the Louisiana Territory.

Oct. 27, 1810 - The United States annexes what is now part of Alabama, part of Louisiana, and part of Mississippi.

Jun. 18, 1812 - United States declares war on Britain.

Mar. 4, 1813 - James Madison is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Aug. 24, 1814 - The British set fire to Washington, D.C.

Dec. 24, 1814 - The United States and Britain sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.

Jan. 8, 1815 - American forces win the Battle of New Orleans (they didn't know the war is over).

The Era of Good Feelings

Feb. 22, 1819 - The United States annexes Florida.

Jun. 30, 1834 - The Indian Territory is established in what is now Oklahoma.

Apr. 12, 1844 - The United States annexes what are now parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas as a result of the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain.

The Mexican War

May 8, 1846 - The Mexican War begins with the Battle of Palo Alto.

May 13, 1846 - The United States declares war on Mexico.

Aug. 22, 1846 - The United States annexes what is now Arizona and New Mexico.

Sep. 14, 1847 - American forces take Mexico City.

Aug. 14, 1848 - The United States annexes the Oregon Territory containing what is now Idaho, part of Montana, Oregon, Washington, part of Wyoming.

Dec. 30, 1853 - The United States purchases what is now part of Arizona and New Mexico.

Feb. 4, 1861 - The Confederate States of America is formed.

Feb. 4, 1861 - The Apache declare war on the United States.

Mar. 4, 1861 - Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as the 16th President of the United States.

Mar. 11, 1861 - The Confederate Congress adopts the Constitution.

Apr. 27, 1861 - 48 counties in western Virginia secede to rejoin the Union (reducing Virginia's size to 42,326sq. miles).

The Civil War

May 6, 1861 - President Lincoln declares a state of insurrection in the southern states.

May 21, 1861 - Richmond, VA. becomes the official capital city of the Confederate States.

Oct. 22, 1861 - The transcontinental telegraph is completed.

Jan. 1, 1863 - The Emancipation Proclamation is issued.

Jul. 1, 1863 - The Battle of Ghettysburg begins.

Apr. 2, 1865 - The fleeing Confederate government sets fire to Richmond.

Apr. 3, 1865 - Union forces occupy the Confederate capital, Richmond (3rd part of the Anaconda Plan.

Apr. 9, 1865 - The Confederate States of America surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War.


Dec. 6, 1865 - The 13th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jul. 24, 1866 - Tennessee is the 1st state to be readmitted to the Union.

Mar. 30, 1867 - The United States purchases the Alaska Territory from Russia for $7.2 million.

Jul. 9, 1868 - The 14th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jul. 25, 1868 - The Wyoming Territory is organized.

Feb. 3, 1870 - The 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution.


Mar. 4, 1897 - The Spanish-American War

Apr. 20, 1898 - The United States declares war on Spain.

May 1, 1898 - American forces win the Battle of Manila Bay.

Jul. 1, 1898 - American forces win the Battle of Santiago.

Jul. 7, 1898 - The United States annexes Hawaii.

Aug. 12, 1898 - The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Paris 1898, ending the Spanish-American War.

The American Empire

Feb. 6, 1899 - The United States annexes Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.

Feb. 22, 1900 - The Hawaii Territory is organized.

Mar. 4, 1901 - Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as the 25th Vice President of the United States.

Sep. 14, 1901 - Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as the 26th President of the United States.

Mar. 4, 1905 - Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Feb. 3, 1913 - The 16th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Mar. 4, 1913 - Woodrow Wilson is sworn in as the 28th President of the United States.

Apr. 8, 1913 - The 17th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Apr. 21, 1914 - American forces occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico.

Jul. 18, 1914 - The United States Army Air Corps is established.

World War I

Jul. 28, 1914 - Germany declares war on Russia in accordance with its alliance with the Ottoman Empire.

France declares war on Germany in accordance with its alliance with Russia.

Austria-Hungary declares war on France in accordance with its alliance with Germany.

Aug. 4, 1914 - President Wilson issues a proclamation of neutrality.

Aug. 15, 1914 - The Panama Canal opens for business.

Feb. 21, 1916 - The Battle of Verdun begins.

Jul. 1, 1916 - The 1st Battle of Somme begins.

Aug. 4, 1916 - The United States purchases the West Indies and the Virgin Islands for $25 million.

Aug. 25, 1916 - The United States National Park Service is established.

Sep. 3, 1916 - Allied forces win the Battle of Verdun.

Nov. 18, 1916 - Allied forces win the 1st Battle of Somme.

Jan. 31, 1917 - Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare against all ships.

Apr. 6, 1917 - The United States enters World War I on the side of the Allies.

Aug. 5, 1917 - The United States National Gaurd is established.

Mar. 3, 1918 - Russia pulls out of World War I.

Sep. 26, 1918 - The Battle of Miuse-Argonne begins.

Sep. 29, 1918 - Allied forces push Central forces past the Hindenburg Line.

Nov. 11, 1918 - The Allied and Central Powers sign an armistice, ending World War I.

Jan. 16, 1919 - The 18th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jun. 28, 1919 - The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending World War I.

The Roaring 20's

Aug. 18, 1920 - The 19th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Mar. 4, 1929 - The Great Depression

Oct. 29, 1929 - The New York Stock Market crashes to an all time low (referred to as "Black Tuesday"), signaling the start of the

Great Depression.

Jan. 23, 1933 - The 20th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Dec. 5, 1933 - The 21st Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jan. 20, 1937 - Franklin Roosevelt is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Sep. 28, 1939 - Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Warsaw pact, keeping the Soviet Union out of World War II.

Jun. 4, 1940 - The British evacuate over 300,000 soldiers from Dunkirk, France back across the English Channel.

Oct. 16, 1940 - Benjamin Davis becomes the first black General in the United States Army.

Jan. 20, 1941 - Franklin Roosevelt is sworn in as President for a 3rd term.

Jun. 22, 1941 - Germany invades the Soviet Union.

Dec. 7, 1941 - Japanese forces attack the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Dec. 8, 1941 - The United States declares war on Japan.

Dec. 11, 1941 - Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.

May 15, 1942 - Women are now allowed to serve in all branches of the armed services.

Feb. 2, 1943 - 200,000 german soldiers surrender at Stalingrad.

Nov. 28, 1943 - Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss World War II.

Jun. 6, 1944 - Allied forces invade Normandy (reffered to as "D-day").

Aug. 25, 1944 - Allied troops liberate Paris.

Dec. 16, 1944 - A german surprise attack begins the Battle of the Bulge.

Dec. 24, 1944 - Allied forces push the german troops past the german border.

Jan. 20, 1945 - Franklin Roosevelt is sworn in as President for a 4th term.

Jun. 26, 1945 - The United Nations is established.

Aug. 6, 1945 - The United States drops the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.

Aug. 9, 1945 - The United States drops the 2nd atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.

Sep. 2, 1945 - Japan unconditionally surrenders to the United States, ending World War II.

The Cold War

Oct. 1, 1946 - Nazi war criminals receive sentencing at the Nuremberg trials.

Oct. 17, 1946 - Winston Churchill proclaims "an iron curtain has swept across the continent (Europe)," beginning the Cold War.

Apr. 4, 1949 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is established by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain,

Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States.

The Korean War

Jun. 25, 1950 - The Korean War officially starts as North Korea invades South Korea.

Jun. 27, 1950 - The United Nations declares war on North Korea.

Feb. 27, 1951 - The 22nd Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Nov. 1, 1952 - The United States detonated the 1st thermonuclear device.

Jan. 20, 1953 - Dwight Eisenhower is sworn in as the 34th President of the United States.

Jan. 20, 1953 - Richard Nixon is sworn in as the 36th Vice President of the United States.

Jan. 20, 1957 - Richard Nixon is sworn in as Vice President for a 2nd term.

Aug. 21, 1959 - Hawaii is the 50th state admitted to the Union.

Jan. 20, 1961 - John Kennedy is sworn in as the 35th President of the United States.

Mar. 29, 1961 - The 23rd Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Apr. 17, 1961 - The Cuban Missile Crisis

Oct. 14, 1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis begins as American spy planes spot Soviet missile bases on Cuba.

Oct. 22, 1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis ends as the Soviet Union pulls its missiles out of Cuba.

The Vietnam War

Nov. 1, 1963 - American/Vietnamese forces stage a coup in Vietnam.

Jan. 23, 1964 - The 24th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jul. 2, 1964 - Segregation is now abolished in the United States.

Aug. 4, 1964 - Vietnamese forces attack an American Destroyer (USS Maddox).

Aug. 7, 1964 - The United States begins military presence in Vietnam.

Feb. 10, 1967 - The 25th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jan. 20, 1969 - Richard Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President of the United States.

Jul. 20, 1969 American astronaught Neil Armstrong is the 1st human to walk on the Moon.

Jul. 1, 1971 - The 26th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jan. 20, 1973 - Richard Nixon is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Jan. 27, 1973 - The United States and Vietnam sign a peace treaty, ending the Vietnam War.

Dec. 19, 1974 - Nelson Rockefeller is sworn in as the 41st Vice President of the United States.

Jan. 20, 1981 - George Bush is sworn in as the 43rd Vice President of the United States.

Mar. 23, 1983 - President Reagan starts the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Jun. 17, 1983 - Leo Pöttinger was born in Freiburg (Germany)

Jan. 20, 1985 - George Bush is sworn in as Vice President for a 2nd term.

Jan. 21, 1985 - Ronald Reagan is sworn in as President for a 2nd term.

Jan. 20, 1989 - George Bush is sworn in as the 41st President of the United States.

The Persian Gulf War

Feb. 28, 1991 - A cease fire is signed between the United Nations and Iraq.

Feb. 1, 1992 - The United States and Russia sign a treaty officially ending the Cold War.

May 7, 1992 - The 27th Amendment is added to the Constitution.

Jan. 20, 1993 - Al Gore is sworn in as the 45th Vice President of the United States

Jan. 21, 1993 - Bill Clinton is sworn in as the 42nd President of the United States.

Aug. 20, 1998 - United States forces launch air strikes at 2 targets in retaliation for the American embassy bombings: a terrorist

training facility in Afghanistan, and a chemical plant in Sudan.

Dec. 16, 1998 - United States forces launch the 1st of 3 air strikes at targets in Iraq.

Dec. 17, 1998 - United States forces launch the 2nd of 3 air strikes at targets in Iraq.

Dec. 18, 1998 - United States forces launch the 3rd of 3 air strikes at targets in Iraq.

Dec. 19, 1998 - The U.S. House of Representatives approves 2 of 4 Proposed Articles of Impeachment.

2. The political system and american politics


The political system of the USA is nearly the same as in Germany. The power is divided into three branches. The Legislative Branch is

mainly for making laws. Congress is is divided into two Houses. In the House of

Representatives are 435 representatives. They are elected for two years by the American people like the second House. The Senate

has 100 senators who are elected for six years, but every two years one third. Members of both houses can suggest new laws. For

example, a bill introduced by a senator is first examined by Senate committees, who look at the opinions of ttf members of government,

private companies and the American people. If the committee accepts the law, each senator can vote for or against it. If the majority

fote for it, the law goes to House fo Representatives and there it will be discussed do a second time. Then they vote ,too. When a law

goes trough both Houses the law must be singned by the President before it can become a law. The president belongs to the Executive

Branch which is mainly for enforcing laws. It consists of the president, vice president and the Cabinet.

And the last Branch is the Judicial Branch. The Supreme Court interprets the laws. There are 9 Justices in it.

The three branches control themselves that nobody can get too much power. Congrss can remove president (impeachment) and can

override president's veto. And the Congrss can removes judges. The Supreme Court can declare laws for unconstitutional and it can

declare actions from the president for uncostitutional. The president can vetoing laws and appointing judges.

This is well-known system of checks and balances.

3.The geography of the USA and its economy


The United States of America consists of 50 states. The whole area of the US is 9.3 sq km, and its population is about 254 million. Fron

the border in the north to the border in the south it is 2500 kilometers, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean it is 4500 kilometers.

The countryside of the USA has many sides: snow-covered Mountains, green valleys, (still) huge forests, and hot dry deserts.

4. Topic: US minorities: American Indians


About 1.6 million American Indians live in the United States today. They belong to more than 500 tribes. They are very religious people

who try to live in harmony wiht nature. For American Indians life is religion. They cannot understand why civilized nations are

destroying Mother arth ans Father Sky. Many American Indians have learned to survive in a white man's world. There are sucsessful

Indians in well paid jobs in American companies. There are Indian teachers, lawyers, doctors, writers and sports stars. There was once

a vice-president of the United States who was part Indian.

Many of the names on Maps of the USA are Indian words: Massachusetts, Mississippi, Kansas,....Even the word "okay" may have

been borrowed from American Indians

Half of them liv in large cities like LA or San Francisco. The other half on reservations. These are special areas of land that belong to

the tribes.

The Ancient Indians

Bering - Mankind came from Asia to America in the Pleistocene age ( = Ice Age) via the Bering street land bridge during the

Wisconsin. These Paleo-Siberians who went there were the first Indians. The first artifacts of this culture date back to 50,000 to 10,000

B.C. About 3,000 to 1,000 B.C., long after the submersion of the Bering land bridge Eskimos and Aleuts came with wooden dugouts and

skin boats to America.

Lithic-Indian - Lithic Indians first did not have the knowledge of stone points for their spears. This age was called the

Pre-Projectile-Point stage (about 50,000 B.C. to about 25,000 B.C.). The hunters probably used fire to harden the tips of their spears,

but their did not remain any spears. After 25,000 B.C. new techniques appeared among Lithic Indians, and workable stone (flint, chert

and obsidian) was used to make cutting tools and the spear points which were very important for hunting.

Archaic-Indians (Foraging Indians) - This time lasted from about 6,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. and is characterized by Indians hunting

and trapping small game, fishing and gathering of edible plants. The Archaic-Indian tribes became more localized than the Lithic Indian

ones and archaeologists even found some permanent Archaic sites. More materials were used during this time and food was stored in

baskets and skin containers. Archaic Indians were the first North Americans to craft wooden boats and domesticate the dog. In this

time they also started to make ornaments.

In general it is difficult to find a system classifications for these periods because each of the Indian groups developed in their own way

with different habits, progress and success. This makes the study of prehistoric Indians confusing.

Ancient civilizations

Southwest - In this part of America which today contains southern Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, a corner of Texas and

northern Mexico. Because of the limited food sources agriculture was discovered here as an alternative. The cultures which lived here

especially developed village life, tools, arts and pottery. The three most important cultures were: Mogollon ("Mountain People"),

Hohokam ("Vanished Ones") and Anasazi ("Ancient Ones"). All these cultures existed between 500 A.D. to 1,500 A.D.

The Mound Builders - In eastern and Midwestern America was enough food so that advanced cultures with bigger populations could

arise without much agriculture. The two main cultures were the Adena and the Hopewell. They were both situated in Ohio Valley. The

Adena existed from 1,000 B.C. to 200 A.D., the Hopewell from about 300 B.C. to 700 A.D. Both cultures constructed Mounds made

out of earth. These mounds reached a height up to 30 or 40 feet.

The Temple Mound Builders - This culture was very good in farming. They lived in the Southeast near rivers and grew corn, squash,

pumpkins and tobacco. They had an excellent trade net between themselves and other Indians. They had a highly developed social

structure and caste system. Because they were obsessed with death they built mounds like the Adena and Hopewells and also temple


Indian Lifeways

Art and technology:

Woodwork - Indians were masters of woodwork and they used a variety of tools to shape the wood. They made axes, knives, scrapers,

drills and hammers out of stone, shell, copper, bone, horn and teeth. They made houses, boats, sleds, snowshoes, bows and arrows,

spears, clubs, shields and much more.

Stonework - Before the iron tools from Europe arrived, stone was the primary material used to form tools for cutting, piercing, scraping

and hammering. Soft stones like catlinite (pipe stone) and steatite (soapstone) were used to shape bowls, containers and religious

objects. Gemstones were used to make jewelry.

Skin work - The Indians used the skin of animals for several purposes. The uncured skin was used to make shields, boxes, drums and

rattles. Indians also had various techniques to cure leather. Leather and fur served to make clothing, sheats and blankets.

Textiles - Indians not only used skin for clothing but plant fibres and wool from buffalo, too. They did not have looms, except Indians in

the Southwest. Yarn was spun on a spindle or by hand.

Basketry - This art developed together with weaving and Indians made various forms of baskets for various purposes.

Pottery - This was mainly used by local tribes in North America because the vessels were to fragile for the nomadic lifestyle.

Metalwork - Although the Native North Americans did not enter the Iron Age, metals were used all over the continent.

There are much more interesting discoveries like shell work, feather work, painting, dramatic arts and games and toys but it would take

too much time to explain them all.

Shelter - Depending on which tribe you look at, you can find different shelters. They were all specialized for the lifestyle of a specific

tribe. There were teepees, wigwams, igloos, pueblos and lean-tos.

Clothing - The style of clothing depended on the climate the Indians had to face and on which materials were available for them. For

their clothing Indians used fur, cotton and various plant materials. Common articles were shirts, leggings for men and skirts and blouses

for women, plus robes and blankets for cold weather. Some Indians went barefoot others wore leather moccasins or woven plant fibre


Religion - This part of Indian life was very important and had influence on their whole lifestyle. Indians saw themselves as an extension

of animate and inanimate nature. Religion and ritual were important for everyday activity like the quest for food, technology, warfare

and art. Prayer was used in combination with hunting, for example. Indian religion generally involved that the universe is suffused with

preternatural forces and powerful spirits. Shamanism was a common form of religious practice in which the individual tried to control

these spirits through the use of magic.

Language - In former times there existed many Indian languages - perhaps as many as 2,200! This caused problems in intertribal

communication, but made it also possible for scientists to trace the development of Indian culture. Many of these languages have

survived and are spoken by contemporary Indians, over 100 in the United States alone!

Indians and explorers

There are different speculations if there came other people to America before Columbus. The only case that can be proved, is the

presence of Vikings in the New World. Archeologists found remains at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland. And expeditions to the

New World are also mentioned in Norse documents.

The white exploration of North America lasted for four centuries, from the end of the 15 th into the 20 th. Five European nations sent

out expeditions: Spain, France, England, the Netherlands and Russia. Even Sweden held a territory in the Delaware Bay. But none of

the first expeditions was carried out by men of those nations: Columbus who sailed for Spain in 1492 was an Italian as was Cabot who

sailed for England in 1497. Verranzo for France in 1524 was also Italian. Hudson who sailed for the Netherlands, in his exploration of

1609 was English. And Bering for Russia in 1741 was Danish.

Indian wars

After the Whites from Europe arrived a difficult time started for the Indians. Waves over waves of settlers from the overpopulated

Europe came to the New World. Because the Whites did not accept traditions and habits of the Indians they started wars. These wars

should last for four hundred years. In the end the Indians lost the Four-Hundred-Year-War. But they only lost because not all Indian

tribes did fight at one front.

5.Topic: Sports



Baseball in the United States began in the 19th century as a variation of many games that made use of a ball and some sort of a rackets.

Throughout this time, Baseball's growth mirrored the growth of the United States. By the turn of the century, the country had boomed

through the industrial revolution with cities growing at a alarming rate. Likewise, Baseball had become a professional sport where

spectators paid to watch highly skilled athletes to play a child's game.

The popularity of amateur baseball clubs that played between 1845 - 1865, led to the introduction of the first professional baseball club,

the Cincinnati Red Stockings. The Red Stockings' success against the amateur teams provided incentive to create America's first

professional baseball league, the National Association of baseball Players in 1871. Though the new league was not a complete success,

it significantly increased baseball's popularity across the land.

William Ambrose Hubert? (president of the Chicago club) and Al Spalding (a pitcher in Boston) believed that reforms were needed to

protect baseball from the corruption and instability that surrounded the National Association. At a meeting in Louisville in 1876, Hubert,

Spalding, and representatives of the St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Louisville baseball clubs designed a set of guidelines for the new league,

named The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs. The National League contained of 8 clubs, however, between 1876 and

1900, only Chicago and Boston fielded a team each year.

During the first two decades of existence, The National League withstood threats of competition from newer professional leagues. In

the 1890's, The National leagues dominance weakened after growing to 12 teams, an unmanageable number for that period. Although

Baseball remained the countries favorite sport, it was gaining a reputation for rowdiness and dirty play that didn't match the era. In the

American League, games were not played on Sundays and women were encouraged to attend ball games. Johnson and Comiskey set a

goal to establish a new image for the game. Recognizing that its power had declined partially by managing too many teams, The National

League sold four teams to the new league in 1900.

?official baseball logo

Following this transaction, National League officials still scoffed at this new league when it began play in 1901. However after luring

many premiere National League Players with higher salaries and running a "kinder, gentler league," American League attendance

exceeded National League attendance by 600,000 fans in 1902. Early in 1903, the National League granted the American League status

as a Major League. With this, came a consistent scheduling system, player contract regulations, and playing guidelines that the two

leagues would share. Another product of this agreement was the World Series, which pitted the American league champion against the

National League champion in a nine game series (later shortened to seven) that would determine the World Champion of Baseball.

In 1903, 16 franchises competed for the first World Series Championship. Though some of these teams have moved to new locations or

changed their names, the modern era of baseball began in 1903 with the same goal that exists today.

6. Topic: History of the Blues


Joseph Machlis says that the blues is a native American musical and

verse form, with no direct European and African antecedents of which we

know. In other words, it is a blending of both traditions.

Something special and entirely different from either of its parent


The word 'blue' has been associated with the idea of melancholia or

depression since the Elizabethan era. The American writer, Washington

Irving is credited with coining the term 'the blues,' as it is now

defined, in 1807. The earlier history of the blues musical tradition is traced through oral tradition as far back as the 1860s.

When African and European music first began to merge to create what

eventually became the blues, the slaves sang songs filled with words

telling of their extreme suffering and privation. One of the

many responses to their oppressive environment resulted in the field

holler. The field holler gave rise to the spiritual, and the blues,

"notable among all human works of art for their profound despair.. .

They gave voice to the mood of alienation and anomie that prevailed in

the construction camps of the South," for it was in the Mississippi

Delta that blacks were often forcibly conscripted to work on the levee

and land-clearing crews, where they were often abused and then tossed

aside or worked to death.

Alan Lomax states that the blues tradition was considered to be a

masculine discipline (although some of the first blues songs heard by

whites were sung by 'lady' blues singers like Mamie Smith and Bessie

Smith) and not many black women were to be found singing the blues in

the juke-joints. The Southern prisons also contributed considerably to

the blues tradition through work songs and the songs of death row and

murder, prostitutes, the warden, the hot sun, and a hundred other

privations. The prison road crews and work gangs where were many

bluesmen found their songs, and where many other blacks simply became

familiar with the same songs.

Following the Civil War, the blues arose as "a distillate of the African music brought over by slaves. Field hollers, ballads, church music

and rhythmic dance tunes called jump-ups evolved into a music for a singer who would engage in call-and-response with his guitar. He

would sing a line, and the guitar would answer it."

By the 1890s the blues were sung in many of the rural areas of the South. And by 1910, the word 'blues' as applied to the musical

tradition was in fairly common use.

Some 'bluesologists' claim, that the first blues song

that was ever written down was 'Dallas Blues,' published in 1912 by Hart

Wand, a white violinist from Oklahoma City. The blues form

was first popularized about 1911-14 by the black composer W.C. Handy

(1873-1958). However, the poetic and musical form of the blues first

crystallized around 1910 and gained popularity through the publication

of Handy's "Memphis Blues" (1912) and "St. Louis Blues" (1914). Instrumental blues had been recorded as early as 1913. Mamie Smith

recorded the first vocal blues song, 'Crazy Blues' in 1920.

Priestly claims that while the widespread popularity of the blues had a

vital influence on subsequent jazz, it was the "initial popularity of

jazz which had made possible the recording of blues in the first place,

and thus made possible the absorption of blues into both jazz as well as

the mainstream of pop music."

American troops brought the blues home with them following the First

World War. They did not, of course, learn them from Europeans, but from

Southern whites who had been exposed to the blues. At this time, the

U.S. Army was still segregated. During the twenties, the blues became a

national craze. Records by leading blues singers like Bessie Smith and

later, in the thirties, Billie Holiday, sold in the millions. The

twenties also saw the blues become a musical form more widely used by

jazz instrumentalists as well as blues singers.

During the decades of the thirties and forties, the blues spread

northward with the migration of many blacks from the South and entered

into the repertoire of big-band jazz. The blues also became electrified

with the introduction of the amplified guitar. In some Northern cities

like Chicago and Detroit, during the later forties and early fifties,

Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, John Lee Hooker, Howlin' Wolf, and Elmore

James among others, played what was basically Mississippi Delta blues,

backed by bass, drums, piano and occasionally harmonica, and began

scoring national hits with blues songs. At about the same time, T-Bone

Walker in Houston and B.B. King in Memphis were pioneering a style of

guitar playing that combined jazz technique with the blues tonality and


In the early nineteen-sixties, the urban bluesmen were "discovered" by

young white American and European musicians. Many of these blues-based

bands like the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, the Rolling Stones, the

Yardbirds, John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, Cream, Canned Heat, and

Fleetwood Mac, brought the blues to young white audiences, something the

black blues artists had been unable to do in America except through the

purloined white cross-over covers of black rhythm and blues songs. Since

the sixties, rock has undergone several blues revivals. Some rock

guitarists, such as Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Jimi Hendrix, and Eddie

Van Halen have used the blues as a foundation for offshoot styles. While

the originators like John Lee Hooker, Albert Collins and B.B. King - and

their heirs Buddy Guy, Otis Rush, and later Eric Clapton and the late

Roy Buchanan, among many others, continued to make fantastic music in

the blues tradition. The latest generation of blues players

like Robert Cray and the late Stevie Ray Vaughan, among others, as well

as gracing the blues tradition with their incredible technicality, have

drawn a new generation listeners to the blues.

The Blue Tonalities And What Defines The Blues

There are a number of different ideas as to what the blues really are: a

scale structure, a note out of tune or out of key, a chord structure; a

philosophy? The blues is a form of Afro-American origin in which a modal

melody has been harmonized with Western tonal chords. In

other words, we had to fit it into our musical system somehow. But, the

problem was that the blues weren't sung according to the European ideas

of even tempered pitch, but with a much freer use of bent pitches and

otherwise emotionally inflected vocal sounds. These

'bent'pitches are known as 'blue notes'.

The 'blue notes' or blue tonalities are one of the defining

characteristics of the blues. Tanner's opinion is that these tonalities

resulted from the West Africans' search for comparative tones not

included in their pentatonic scale. He claims that the West African

scale has neither the third or seventh tone nor the flat third or flat

seventh. "Because of this, in the attempt to imitate either of these

tones the pitch was sounded approximately midway between [the minor AND

major third, fifth, or seventh], causing what is called a blue

tonality." When the copyists attempted to write down the

music, they came up with the so-called "blues scale," in which the

third, the seventh, and sometimes the fifth scale-degrees were lowered a

half step, producing a scale resembling the minor scale.

There are many nuances of melody and rhythm in the blues that are

difficult, if not impossible to write in conventional notation. But the blue notes are not really minor notes in a major context. In

practice they may come almost anywhere.

Before the field cry, with its bending of notes, it had not occurred to

musicians to explore the area of the blue tonalities on their

instruments. The early blues singers would sing these "bent"

notes, microtonal shadings, or "blue" notes, and the early

instrumentalists attempted to duplicate them. By the

mid-twenties, instrumental blues were common, and "playing the blues"

for the instrumentalist could mean extemporizing a melody within a blues

chord sequence. Brass, reed, and string instrumentalists, in particular,

were able to produce many of the vocal sounds of the blues singers.

Blues Lyrics

Blues lyrics contain some of the most fantastically penetrating

autobiographical and revealing statements in the Western musical

tradition. For instance, the complexity of ideas implicit in Robert

Johnson's 'Come In My Kitchen,' such as a barely concealed desire,

loneliness, and tenderness, and much more:

You better come in my kitchen, It's gonna be rainin' outdoors. Blues

lyrics are often intensely personal, frequently contain sexual

references and often deal with the pain of betrayal, desertion, and

unrequited love or with unhappy situations such as being

jobless, hungry, broke, away from home, lonely, or downhearted because

of an unfaithful lover.

The early blues were very irregular rhythmically and usually followed

speech patterns, as can be heard in the recordings made in the twenties

and thirties by the legendary bluesmen Charley Patton, Blind Lemon

Jefferson, Robert Johnson and Lightnin' Hopkins among others. The meter of the blues is usually written in iambic pentameter. The first

line is generally repeated and third line is different from the first two. The repetition of the first line serves a purpose as it gives the

singer some time to come up with a third line. Often the lyrics of a blues song do not seem to fit the music, but a good blues singer will

accent certain syllables and eliminate others so that everything falls nicely into place.

The structure of blues lyrics usually consists of several three-line

verses. The first line is sung and then repeated to roughly the same

melodic phrase, the third line has a different melodic phrase.

Construction Of The Blues

Most blues researchers claim that the very early blues were patterned

after English ballads and often had eight, ten, or sixteen bars. The blues now consists of a definite progression of harmonies

usually consisting of eight, twelve or sixteen measures, though the

twelve bar blues are, by far, the most common.

The 12 bar blues harmonic progression (the one-four-five) is most often

agreed to be the following: four bars of tonic, two of subdominant, two

of tonic, two of dominant, and two of tonic. Each roman numeral indicates a chord built on a specific tone in the major scale. Due to the

influence of rock and roll, the tenth chord has been changed to IV. This alteration is now

considered standard. In practice, various intermediate chords, and even some substitute chord patterns, have been used in blues

progressions, at least since the nineteen-twenties. Some purists feel that any variations or embellishments of the basic blues pattern

changes its quality or validity as a blues song. For instance, if the basic blues chord progression is not used, then the music being played

is not the blues. Therefore, these purists maintain that many melodies with the word "blues" in the title, and which are often spoken of as

being the blues, are not the blues because their melodies lack this particular basic blues harmonic construction.

The principal blues melodies are, in fact, holler cadences, set to a

steady beat and thus turned into dance music and confined to a

three-verse rhymed stanza of twelve to sixteen bars. The

singer can either repeat the same basic melody for each stanza or

improvise a new melody to reflect the changing mood of the lyrics. Blues rhythm is also very flexible. Performers often sing

"around" the beat, accenting notes either a little before or behind the


Jazz instrumentalists frequently use the chord progression of the

twelve-bar blues as a basis for extended improvisations. The twelve or

sixteen bar pattern is repeated while new melodies are improvised over

it by the soloists. As with the Baroque bassocontinuo, the repeated

chord progression provides a foundation for the free flow of such

improvised melodic lines.


One of the problems regarding defining what the blues are is the variety

of authoritative opinions. The blues is neither an era in the

chronological development of jazz, nor is it actually a particular style

of playing or singing jazz. Some maintain (mostly musicologists) that the blues are defined by the use of blue notes (and on this point they

also differ - some say that they are simply flatted thirds, fifths, and sevenths applied to a major scale; some maintain that they are

microtones; and some believe that they are the third, or fifth, or seventh tones sounded simultaneously with the flatted third, or fifth, or

seventh tones respectively). Others feel that the song form is the defining feature of the blues. Some

feel that the blues is a way to approach music, a philosophy, in a

manner of speaking. And still others hold a much wider sociological view

that the blues are an entire musical tradition rooted in the black

experience of the post-war South. Whatever one may think of the social

implications of the blues, whether expressing the American or black

experience in microcosm, it was their "strong autobiographical nature,

their intense personal passion, chaos and loneliness, executed so

vibrantly that it captured the imagination of modern musicians" and the general public as well.

Topic: Famous Americans


Michael Jordan Chronology


Feb. 17, 1963 - Born in Brooklyn, N.Y.

March 29, 1982 - As a freshman at North Carolina, hits game-winning

basket for Tar Heels 63-62 win in the NCAA championship game against


1982-1983 - AP All-America first team. Sporting News College Player of the Year. Sporting News All-America first team.

1983-1984 - AP All-America first team. AP College Player of the Year.

Sporting News College Player of the Year. Sporting News All-America

first team. Member of United States gold medal-winning Olympic

basketball team.

Sept. 12, 1984 - Signed as Bulls No. 1 draft choice, chosen third

overall, behind Hakeem Olajuwon and Sam Bowie.

1984-1985 - Named NBA Rookie of the Year after averaging 28.2 points.

1985-1986 - Missed 64 games due to a foot injury.

April 20, 1986 - Scores playoff-record 63 points in a first-round game

against Boston.

Feb. 26, 1987 - Makes 26 of 27 free-throws in a game against New Jersey.

April 17, 1987 - Sets NBA record by scoring 23 consecutive points

against Atlanta and finishing with 61 points.

1986-1987 - NBA Slam Dunk Champion. Scores 3,041 points, the third

highest total in NBA history. Only Wilt Chamberlain reached that

plateau. Averages 37.1 points to win first of seven straight NBA scoring

titles. Only player in NBA history to record at least 200 steals (236)

and at least 100 blocked shots (125) in the same season. Named All-NBA

first team for first of seven straight seasons.

May 1, 1988 - Scores 55 points in playoff victory against Cleveland.

1987-1988 - NBA Slam Dunk Champion. Averages 35 points. NBA

regular-season MVP. NBA Defensive Player of the Year. NBA All-Star Game

MVP. Leads NBA in steals 3.2 per game. Named NBA All-Defensive first

team for first of six straight years.

March 24, 1989 - Has 17 assists in game against Portland.

May 9, 1989 - Has a triple-double (34 points, 10 rebounds, 12 assists)

in a playoff game against New York.

1988-1989 - Averages 32.5 points.

March 28, 1990 - Scores career-best 69 points and 18 rebounds against


1989-1990 - Leads NBA in steals 2.77 per game. Averages 33.6 points.

May 21, 1991 - Makes 13 of 14 free-throws in one quarter in a playoff

game against Detroit.

1990-1991 - Averages 31.5 points. NBA regular-season MVP. Named NBA

Finals MVP. Leads Bulls to NBA championship. AP Male Athlete of the


June 3, 1992 - Scores an NBA Finals record 35 first-half points against

Portland in Game 1.

1991-1992 - Averages 30.1 points. NBA regular season MVP. Named NBA

Finals MVP for the second straight year, the first player so honored.

Scores playoff record 135 points (45 pg) in leading the Bulls to a

three- game sweep of Miami in the first round. Included is a 56-point

performance, his fifth career game of at least 50 points in the

playoffs, an NBA record. Leads Bulls to NBA championship. Member of

United States gold medal-winning Olympic basketball team. AP Male

Athlete of the Year.

June 2, 1993 - Has a triple-double (29 points, 10 rebounds, 14 assists)

in playoff game against New York.

June 20, 1993 - Posts highest scoring average in NBA Finals history,

averaging 41.0 points against Phoenix as Bulls "three-peat" in six

games. Jordan is the first player named NBA Finals MVP three years in a


1992-1993 - Averages 32.6 points to tie Wilt Chamberlain's NBA record of

seven straight scoring titles. Scores his 20,000th point, becoming the

second fastest to reach that plateau.

Aug. 3, 1993 - The body of Jordan's father, James, is found in North

Carolina but not identified until Aug. 13. Authorities determine he was

killed July 23. Two men are eventually convicted in the slaying.

Oct. 6, 1993 - Jordan stuns the basketball world by retiring, saying he

has nothing left to prove in basketball.

December 1993 - Jordan begins working out for a try at baseball with the

Chicago White Sox.

Feb. 7, 1994 - Jordan signs a free agent contract with the White Sox,

saying he is not afraid to fail. The team invites him to spring


March 31, 1994 - White Sox assign Jordan to the Class AA Birmingham

Barons of the Southern League.

April 8, 1994 - Jordan starts his first professional baseball game,

playing right field for the Barons. For the season, Jordan bats .202

with 51 RBIs, 30 stolen bases and 114 strikeouts in 127 games. His

presence boosts attendance throughout the Southern League.

Sept.-Nov. 1994 - Jordan plays for the Scottsdale Scorpions of Arizona

Fall League, batting .252 in 35 games.

Nov. 1, 1994 - Bulls retire Jordan's No. 23 and unveil a statue of him

in front of the United Center, the Bulls' new home.

Feb. 17, 1995 - Jordan turns 32 in Sarasota, Fla., as the White Sox open

spring training.

March 2, 1995 - Jordan leaves White Sox spring training camp after the

team is split into those who will play exhibition games and those who

won't. Jordan had vowed earlier to stay out of the middle of the strike.

March 7-9, 1995 - Jordan's appearances at the Bulls' training facility

prompt speculation he will return to basketball.

March 18, 1995 - Jordan and the Bulls announce he will rejoin the team

and play in the next day's nationally televised game against the Pacers

at Indianapolis.

March 19, 1995 - Wearing No. 45, the same number he wore for the Barons

and as a basketball player in junior high school, Jordan plays 38

minutes, scoring 19 points on 7-for-28 shooting with six rebounds and

six assists in Chicago's 103-96 overtime-loss to Indiana.

March 28, 1995 - In his fifth game back, Jordan scores 55 points on

21-for-37 shooting in Chicago's 113-111 victory at New York.

May 18, 1995 - Jordan and the Bulls are knocked out of the playoffs by

the Orlando Magic in the Eastern Conference semifinals. It is the first

time a Jordan-led Chicago team is bounced from the playoffs since


Oct. 29, 1996 - Jordan is named as a member of NBA's 50 greatest players

in league history.

June 16, 1996 - Jordan leads Chicago over Seattle in the NBA Finals in

his first full season back since retirement. The Bulls win an NBA

season-record 72 games and Jordan wins his eighth scoring title, is

named regular season MVP, NBA Finals MVP and All-Star Game MVP.

Nov. 30, 1996 - Jordan scores 25,000th career point in San Antonio.

March 18, 1997 - Jordan has 18 rebounds in a game against Seattle.

June 13, 1997 - Jordan and the Bulls win their second straight NBA

title, defeating Utah in six games.

1996-1997 - Jordan wins his second consecutive scoring title, ninth

overall, and is named NBA Finals MVP for the second straight season.

March 27, 1998 - The largest crowd in NBA history - 62,046 - shows up at

the Georgia Dome, anticipating Jordan's retirement. Jordan scores 34

points in Chicago's 89-74 win over Atlanta.

April 3, 1998 - Jordan scores 41 points against Minnesota to become the

third player in NBA history to reach 29,000 career points. Jordan joins

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Wilt Chamberlain as the only players to score


June 14, 1998 - On Jordan's final shot against Utah in Game 6, Chicago

wins its third straight NBA title and sixth in eight years. It is the

second time this decade the Bulls won three consecutive titles.

1997-1998 - Jordan wins his third straight scoring title and 10th of his

career. Jordan is named regular season MVP, NBA Finals MVP and All-Star

Game MVP.

Jan. 11, 1999 - A source tells The Associated Press that Jordan will

announce his retirement on Jan. 13.

Bill Clinton


It All Began in a Place Called Hope President Bill Clinton. Bill Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, in the

small town of Hope, Arkansas. He was named after his father, William Jefferson Blythe II, who had been killed in a car accident just

three months before his son was born. Needing to find a way to support herself and her new child, Bill Clinton's mother, Virginia

Cassidy Blythe, moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, to study nursing. Bill Clinton stayed with his mother's parents in Hope. There he was

surrounded by many relatives who gave him love and support and who played a significant role in his upbringing. Bill Clinton's

grandparents, Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, taught him strong values and beliefs. They owned a small grocery store just outside of Hope,

and despite the segregation laws of the time, they allowed people of all races to purchase goods on credit. They taught their young

grandson that everyone is created equal and that people should not be treated differently because of the color of their skin. This was a

lesson Bill Clinton never forgot. His mother returned from New Orleans with her nursing degree in 1950, when her son was four years

old. Later that same year, she married an automobile salesman named Roger Clinton. When Bill Clinton was seven years old, the family

moved to Hot Springs, Arkansas. Known for its natural mineral hot springs, its scenic beauty, and its racetrack, Hot Springs was bigger

than Hope and offered better employment opportunities. Roger received a higher paying job as a service manager for his brother's car

dealer-ship and Virginia was able to find a better job as a nurse anesthetist. In 1956. Bill Clinton's half-brother, Roger Clinton, Jr., was

born. When his brother was old enough to enter school, young Bill had his last name legally changed from Blythe to Clinton. In 1960,

John F. Kennedy was elected President. Two years later, when Bill Clinton was a senior in high school, he was selected to go to

Washington, D.C., to be a part of Boys Nation, a special youth leadership conference. The young men of Boys Nation and the young

women of Girls Nation were invited to the White House to meet President Kennedy. Bill Clinton was one of the first in line to shake

President Kennedy's hand in the Rose Garden. That event was one of the most memorable, important experiences of his youth. After

that, he knew he wanted to make a difference in the lives of the people of America by becoming President. That same year, Dr. Martin

Luther King, Jr., gave his historic "I Have a Dream" speech at the foot of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Bill Clinton

watched the speech on television and was so deeply moved by Dr. King's words that he memorized them. He admired Dr. King's gift

for communicating a clear vision and his ability to pull people together to work toward a common goal. Dr. King became one of Bill

Clinton's heroes. Inspired by the success of these leaders, young Bill thrived on the hard work that his academic and extracurricular

activities required. As an active member of his church, he raised money and organized charity events. Most important, he learned about

working with people and being a good citizen. In his spare time, he enjoyed reading. Some of his favorite books were The Silver

Chalice, The Last of the Mohicans, The Robe, and Black Beauty. Playing the saxophone was his favorite pastime. He loved music,

practiced every day, and played in jazz ensembles. Each summer, he attended a band camp in the Ozark Mountains. His hard work paid

off when he became a top saxophone player at his school and won first chair in the state band's saxophone section. Bill Clinton

recognized that although college would be expensive, it would give him the education he needed to accomplish his goals. His hard work

in school, combined with his musical ability, earned him many academic and music scholarships. With the help of those scholarships and

loans from the government, he was able to attend Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He chose Georgetown because it had an

excellent foreign service program; he was also excited about going to school in the nation's capital.

While earning his Bachelor of Science degree in International Affairs he worked as an intern in the office of Arkansas Senator J.

William Fulbright. There he learned how government worked and what it was like to be a politician. He admired Senator Fulbright for his

accomplishments and beliefs. When Bill Clinton finished college in 1968, he won a Rhodes Scholarship, which allows select students to

study at Oxford University in England. While at Oxford, he studied government and played rugby. Upon his return to the United States,

he began law school at Yale University. At Yale, he continued to work hard. He maintained his interest in government by campaigning

for a Senate candidate in Connecticut. He also met Hillary Rodham, whom he would later marry. When he graduated from law school in

1973, Bill Clinton returned to Arkansas to teach law at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. There he could concentrate on his

goal of running for political office. In 1974, he had his first opportunity when he ran for Congress against Republican incumbent John

Paul Hammerschmidt. Although he lost the race, Bill Clinton learned much about politics and met people who have remained his lifelong

friends. Hillary had joined him in Arkansas and helped him campaign. She also began teaching at the University of Arkansas. They were

married on October 11, 1975. In 1976, Bill Clinton was elected Attorney General of Arkansas. Two years later, at the age of thirty-two,

he became the youngest governor in the United States. As governor of Arkansas, he concentrated on improving the state's educational

system and building better roads. On February 27, 1980, the Clintons' daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born. The Clintons describe this

day as the happiest one of their lives. Later that year, in a close election, Governor Clinton lost the race for a second term to Republican

Frank White. Feeling that he had not accomplished all that he wanted to do, he ran as the Democratic candidate in the next gubernatorial

election. Campaigning throughout the state, he assured the voters that he would address their needs, and he was re-elected in November

1982. Again, his most important goal as governor was to enhance the quality of education in the state. He raised teachers' salaries and

began a program of testing students after the third, sixth, and eighth grades. He also encouraged parents to participate in their children's

education. His new educational standards ensured that every child in Arkansas, regardless of the size or wealth of his or her community

or of family income level, would receive a quality education. From August 1986 to August 1987, Governor Clinton served as chairman of

the National Governors' Association. During that time, he led the governors' efforts to reform the welfare system and the educational

systems of the states.

By the fall of 1991, Governor Clinton believed that the country needed someone with a new vision and plan, and he decided to run for

President. He also felt that he had the experience and the best ideas for changing our country for the better. He wanted to strengthen

the health care system, to improve the school system, and, most of all, to bolster the economy and create new jobs. He brought his

message to the country by going door to door, holding one-on-one talks with people in town hall meetings, and appearing on various talk

shows. After a long primary process, Governor Clinton was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate. He chose Senator Al

Gore, of Tennessee to be his vice-presidential running mate. Together, Bill Clinton and Al Gore set out by bus to meet the people of

America and to hear about their concerns and their hopes for the future. They campaigned on the concept of "putting people

first'---preserving the American Dream, restoring the hopes of the middle class, and reclaiming the future for the nation's children. When

election day arrived on November 3, 1992, voters turned out in record numbers to cast their ballots. Bill Clinton was elected the 42nd

President of the United States and Al Gore the 45th Vice President. They had succeeded in bringing the people together in their efforts

to change our country. Throughout his life, President Clinton has worked to make a difference in the lives of others. To him, Hope

means more than a small town in Arkansas; it means working to ensure that each American has the opportunity to fulfill his or her




1. The history of the USA

2. The political system and american politics

mainly my englishbook (Cornelsen C4)

3. The geography of the USA and its economy

4. Topic: US minorities

- American Indians

my englishbook (Cornelsen C4)

Goeran Zängerlein "indians in America "

5. Topic: sports

- Baseball

6. Topic: music

- Blues

7.Topic: famous Americans

- Bill Clinton

- Michael Jordan Chronology

8.Topic: Sources

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