Vietnam War

Vietnam War

Chronology of the Vietnam - War





1858 Vietnam is annexed by France
1887 Vietnam and Cambodia is ruled by France
1939 - 1941: Viet Minh seeks for independence



1945: The Viet Minh begins a war against French occupation with attacks in the North.
(declaration of independence - French offers only a free - state freedom)
1950: The USA begins to provide military and economic aid to the French in Indochina.



1954: The French are defeated. an agreement is signed, in October the Viet Minh take formal control over North Vietnam. ( Vietnam divided into North and South )
1956: A US military advisory group replaces French training of the South Vietnamese army.



1961: The (Communist) National Liberation Front (NLF) is formed in South Vietnam. US - President Kennedy sends special forces and military advisors to South Vietnam.






1963: In November, South Vietnam’s president Diem is overthrown in a military coup. Kennedy is assassinated and Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in.
1964: After an attack by North Vietnamese torpedo boats on two US destroyers, the US Congress enables the president in order to take revanche in a military way.
1965: Johnson increases US military forces. (à1967 - US forces in Vietnam total 465.000.)



1969: US - President Nixon takes 25.000 US troops away from Vietnam, which called "policy of Vietnamization".
1972: In August, US ground troops leave South Vietnam. The US Airforce rests in Vietnam (à bombs on Hanoi, Haiphong, harbours of North Vietnam)
1973: A cease - fire agreement is signed in Paris ( US - troops are taken away from Vietnam àofficially end of war.); BUT: the fights between North - V. and South - V. continue.



1975 After the capture of Saigon South - Vietnam capitulates.
1976 Proclamation of the Social Republic of Vietnam

Consequences


1963 àIn South - Vietnam approximately 15.000 american soldiers are deployed.

1964 àThe publication of documents about the development of the Vietnam - War reduces the credibility of the Johnson government.

1965 àMainly the young generation starts to demonstrate against the war.
    àThe maximum of the Anti - War - Movement is reached when more than 200.000 protesters walk towards the Pentagon.
1969 àAbout 541,000 american soldiers fight in Vietnam.
1970 àIn may 6 students die during a demonstration.
1965 à6.3 million tons of bombs were going down on Vietnam. In the Second World War
- 1971 ca. 2.1 million tons of bombs went down on Africa, Asia and Europe.
    àThe War Powers Act becomes a law, to limit the power of the president.
1973 àThe United States support South - Vietnam with ca. 3 billion $.
- 1974 àA big imigration wave starts from South - Vietnam.
    √†The western countries (except Sweden) don’t help to rebuild Vietnam.
CONCLUSION: The aim to limit the spread of Communism wasn’t reached
Ca. 2.5 million people lost their lifes.
The war costs more than 185 billion $.
More than 50.000 veterans admit suicide after the war.
The dimension of human sorrow and the destruction of nature, culture and industry is undefinable.








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