Religion in Britain

Religion in Britain

Church of England (Anglican Church):
    History: Founded in 1534 by Henry VIII; "Act of Supremacy" 27 million members 2 branches: - Anglo - Catholics (High Church)
- Evangelicals (Low Church)
    2 provinces: Canterbury and York Structure of administration: 2 heads, the secular (the sovereign) and the religious one (Archbishop of Canterbury); furthermore the General Synod as the central governing body Relationship of Church and State: Based on mutual obligation and control

Church of Scotland ("Kirk"):
    History: Presbyterian church; founded in 1559 by John Knox in the Protestant Reformation and established as the national Church of Scotland in 1707 in the "Treaty of Union" 1 million members Structure of administration: No episcopal, but democratic government by elders; each year election of the Moderator Northern Ireland Conflict

Free Churches (Dissenters/Nonconformists):
    History: - Protestant churches; deriving from the Puritans which came up in the 16thcentury
- 16thand 17thcentury: Persecution of Puritans; emigration to America (Mayflower)
- 1648: Winners of the Civil War (1642 - 1648) under Oliver Cromwell
- 1649 - 1660: Abolition of monarchy
- 1661/1673: Anti - Puritan legislation
- 1828: Equal rights for Puritans
    7 million members Bible as sole authority Structure of administration: No church hierarchy, but democratic church organization with equal status of ministers and laymen, of men and women Achievement of Puritanism in Britain: Social legislation in the 19thcentury (e.g. end of child labour)

Roman Catholics:
    History: - 664: England submitted to papal domination
- 16thand 17thcentury: Persecution of Roman - Catholics
- 1829 - 1850: Reintroduction of Roman - Catholics (Oxford Movement)
    6 million members Structure of administration: British head: Archbishop of Westminster

Non - Christian Religious Communities:
    Resulting from a great immigration from Asian and African countries since the 1950s 1,5 million Muslims 400,000 Jews About 150,000 Sikhs and Hindus each

Current Religious Issues:
    Decline in membership Ordination of women Relationship between Church and State
Vocabulary:
attendance: Anwesenheit
austere: einfach, wenig anspruchsvoll
child labour: Kinderarbeit
clergy: Klerus
confession of faith: Glaubensbekenntnis
creed: Glaube, √úberzeugung
diocese: Diözese
dissent: abweichend, andersgläubig
domination: (Vor - )Herrschaft
elders: √Ąltere, hier: Vorsitzende
episcopal: bischöflich
layman: Kirchenangehöriger, der nicht zum Klerus gehört
mutual: gegenseitig
papal: päpstlich
parish: Gemeinde
secular: weltlich
sovereign: Oberhaupt
struggle: Kampf, Auseinandersetzung
supremacy: √úberlegenheit
synod: Zusammenkunft, Versammlung
worship: Gebet

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